Steroid hormones regulate gene expression by binding

PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST DEVELOPMENT AND VASCULARIZATION During human and nonhuman primate pregnancy, the placenta simultaneously accesses the maternal blood and develops a vascular network for the transport of nutrients to and waste products from the fetus across the syncytiotrophoblast to ensure fetal growth and development. Both processes depend on the ability of the primordial stem-cell cytotrophoblasts to take either the villous pathway where they remain in the fetal compartment and differentiate morphologically into the syncytiotrophoblast or the extravillous pathway where they proliferate, aggregate into cell columns of the anchoring villi, and invade the endometrial stroma (Fig. 6). 105 The syncytiotrophoblast covers the floating chorionic villi that become highly vascularized, whereas the extravillous cytotrophoblasts infiltrate the walls of the spiral arterioles to facilitate the process of placentation.

Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances related to male sex hormones (androgens). Although it is illegal in the United States to possess or distribute anabolic steroids for nonmedical use, a "black market" for them exists, and many amateur and professional athletes take them to enhance performance. In many cases, the athletes take doses that are extremely high—perhaps 100 times the doses that might be prescribed for medical use. As a result, they put themselves in real danger of short-term and long-term health problems. Blood testing, as has been used in the Olympic Games, can detect, identify, and quantify the presence of anabolic steroids in the blood of athletes, which can lead to the disqualification of an athlete.

Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.

d) Vitamin D2 ( from plant sources ) is only a 5th to a 10th as effective as D3, and has a lower affinity than D3 to vitamin D binding protein. So it might result in more free D2 in the circulation that can lead to toxicity, as vitamin D2 can bind anywhere as it is not transported with a binding protein for a specific reason. Vitamin A also protects against any potential toxicity from vitamin D. As vitamin D levels increase, so does the demand for vitamin A. Hence, a high vitamin D dose can lead to a vitamin A deficiency if adequate vitamin A isn’t ingested. Also be sure to consume adequate amounts of vitamin K2 as A, D, K and E all work together to prevent toxicity and disease, such as kidney stones, tissue calcification, cancer, etc…

Steroid hormones regulate gene expression by binding

steroid hormones regulate gene expression by binding

d) Vitamin D2 ( from plant sources ) is only a 5th to a 10th as effective as D3, and has a lower affinity than D3 to vitamin D binding protein. So it might result in more free D2 in the circulation that can lead to toxicity, as vitamin D2 can bind anywhere as it is not transported with a binding protein for a specific reason. Vitamin A also protects against any potential toxicity from vitamin D. As vitamin D levels increase, so does the demand for vitamin A. Hence, a high vitamin D dose can lead to a vitamin A deficiency if adequate vitamin A isn’t ingested. Also be sure to consume adequate amounts of vitamin K2 as A, D, K and E all work together to prevent toxicity and disease, such as kidney stones, tissue calcification, cancer, etc…

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