PRECAUTIONS : Identification of infecting organisms should be made either by microscopic roll smear evaluation or by culture as appropriate. Antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic organism(s) should be determined prior to use of this preparation.
If overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria, fungi, or yeasts occur, or if hypersensitivity develops, treatment should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
Administration of recommended doses of gentamicin-betamethasone-clotrimazole ointment beyond 7 days may result in delayed wound-healing.
Avoid ingestion. Adverse systemic reactions have been observed following the oral ingestion of some topical corticosteroid preparations. Patients should be closely observed for the usual signs of adrenocorticoid overdosage which include sodium retention, potassium loss, fluid retention, weight gain, polydipsia, and/or polyuria. Prolonged use or overdosage may produce adverse immunosuppressive effects.
Use of corticosteroids, depending on dose, duration, and specific steroid, may result in endogenous steroid production inhibition following drug withdrawal. In patients presently receiving or recently withdrawn from corticosteroid treatments, therapy with a rapidly acting corticosteroid should be considered in especially stressful situations.
Before instilling any medication into the ear, examine the external ear canal thoroughly to be certain the tympanic membrane is not ruptured in order to avoid the possibility of transmitting infection to the middle ear as well as damaging the cochlea or vestibular apparatus from prolonged contact.
The ability of the glucocorticosteroid receptor to bind mineralocorticosteroids suggests that spironolactone, a potent aldosterone antagonist, may also interact with the glucocorticosteroid receptor, resulting in an agonist or antagonist glucocorticosteroid activity. We have investigated the effect of this drug on the activity of the glucocorticosteroid-regulated mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. For these studies we used the mouse fibroblast cell line . It contains about 200 copies of a permanently established chimeric DNA construct comprising a transcription unit [MMTV long terminal repeat (LTR)] driving the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase linked to the 69% transforming fragment of the bovine papilloma virus genome. This cell line has a high level of glucocorticosteroid receptor (1200 fmol/mg protein) and no detectable mineralocorticosteroid receptor. Competition experiments showed a binding of spironolactone to glucocorticosteroid receptor, with an affinity 50-fold lower than that of dexamethasone. In these cells, spironolactone behaves as an antiglucocorticosteroid, inhibiting in a dose-dependent fashion dexamethasone-induced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, with an ED50 of 8 microM. The absence of agonist activity, even at a high concentration of this compound (10 microM), demonstrates that spironolactone is a pure antiglucocorticosteroid in this cell line. MMTV LTR DNase-I hypersensitivity studies demonstrated that spironolactone, when administered in combination with dexamethasone, inhibits formation of the hormone-induced hypersensitive site located about 160 basepairs up-stream of the MMTV cap site. Furthermore, spironolactone alone failed to induce this DNase-I-hypersensitive site, suggesting that the antagonist-receptor complex does not interact productively with MMTV LTR chromatin.
The external ear should be thoroughly cleaned and dried before treatment. Remove foreign material, debris, crusted exudates, etc., with suitable non-irritating solutions. Excessive hair should be clipped from the treatment area. After verifying that the eardrum is intact, instill 4 drops from the g and 15 g tube, and 15 g and 30 g bottle (2 drops from the 215 g bottle) of OTOMAX ointment twice daily into the ear canal of dogs weighing less than 30 lbs. Instill 8 drops from the g and 15 g tube, and 15 g and 30 g bottle (4 drops from the 215 g bottle) twice daily into the ear canal of dogs weighing 30 lbs or more. Massage external ear canal carefully after instillation to ensure appropriate distribution of medication. Therapy should continue for 7 consecutive days.